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Kinder#TitleStation1titleWenn Kinder ihre Welt konstruieren. Und wie wir sie dabei unterstützen könnenEin Spaziergang
Kinder#ExplanationStation2explanationSome text to explain what lays ahead.
Kinder3normalSchon kleine Babys bauen fleißig an ihren WeltbildernWhen an infant, for instance, assimilates some visual elements to the invariant pattern that, for him, constitutes a rattle, and grasps and shakes a piece of wood that happens to be within reach, then the absence of the auditory element expected to ensue may cause a discrepancy that cannot be eliminated by assimilation. In that case, attention is likely to be focused on any of the formerly disregarded visual or tactual elements by means of which the piece of wood could be discriminated from the rattle. Once the discrimination has occurred, the new elements, with or without some of the old ones, can be associated in an act of accommodation to form a novel scheme. This novel scheme, from then on, will serve as a relatively independent invariant for the assimilation of future experiences.Source: Cybernetics, Experience, and the Concept of Self, Experience, and the Concept of Self 960 720.jpgDas kleine Kind hat also gelernt, dass nicht alles, was wie eine Rassel aussieht, auch Geräusche macht.

Vielleicht ist das neue Ding, das es kennengelernt hat leichter, oder bunter oder weicher als die eigentliche Rassel.

Das Kind hat seine Erwartungshaltung und sein Weltbild angepasst.
Kinder4normalEin paar Monate später sitzt das Kind vor einem SpiegelThe child who stands in front of a looking glass, sticks out his tongue, and contorts his face into all sorts of grimaces gets a constant confirmation of this causal link. The mirror image is as obedient as his own limbs and can, thus, be integrated with the body percept, expanding it by providing visual access to otherwise invisible aspects. And like the body image, it is a visual percept, an item that is experienced not the item that does the experiencing.Source: Cybernetics, Experience, and the Concept of Self, Experience, and the Concept of Self dem Spiegel hat das Kind gelernt, dass sein Spiegelbild auf seine Bewegungen reagiert. Es wird aber noch eine Weile dauern, bis das Kind realisiert, dass das Spiegelbild nicht nur zu ihm gehört, sondern auch genauso aussieht. Erst ab ca. 18 Monaten erkennen Kinder ihr eigenen Spiegelbild auch als solches
Kinder5normalDas Kind beginnt zu sprechen und muss auch hier wieder einiges an Konstruktionsarbeit leistenSuppose a very young child applies the word dog to every four-legged creature he sees. He may have abstracted a limited set of attributes and created a large category, but his abstraction will now show up in his vocabulary. Parents will not provide him with a conventional name for his category, e.g., quadruped, but instead will require him to narrow his use of dog to its proper range... The child who spontaneously hits on the category four-legged animals will be required to give it up in favor of dogs, cats, horses, cows, and the like ... The schoolboy who learns the word quadruped has abstracted from differentiated and named subor- dinates. The child he was abstracted through a failure to differentiate. Abstraction after differentiation may be the mature process, and abstraction from a failure to differentiate the primitive.Source: Cybernetics, Experience, and the Concept of Self, Experience, and the Concept of Self 960 720.jpgNach und nach passt das Kind die Merkmale und die Kategorien an, und lernt klarer und genauer zu kommunizieren. Es erkennt und benennt zunehmend Unterschiede zwischen Personen, Tierarten aber auch verschiedenen Nahrungsmitteln.
Kinder6normalAber auch wenn das Kind Äpfel von Birnen unterscheiden kann, ist die Konstruktion noch nicht fertig ausgereiftI hope to make this clear with the help of an example. A child growing up in a region where apples are red would neessarily and quite correctly associate the idea of redness with the name “apple”. A distant relative arriving from another part of the country, bringing a basket of yellow apples, would cause a major perturbation for the child, who might want to insist that yellow things should not be called “apples”. However, the social pressure of the family’s usage of the word will soon force the child to accept the fact that the things people call “apple” come in different colors. The child might then be told that apples can also be green, which would enable the child to recognize such a particular green thing as an apple the first time it is brought to the house.Source: Abstraction, Re-Presentation, and Reflection: An Interpretation of Experience and of Piaget’s Approach, Re-Presentation, and Reflection: An Interpretation of Experience and of Piaget’s Approach 960 720.jpgDurch wiederholte Anpassung der eigenen Konstruktion der Welt an die eigenen Erfahrungen, erweitert das Kind sein Weltverständnis. Das geschieht oft im Austausch mit anderen.
Kinder7normalDann muss sich Lehrende oder Eltern genauer ansehen, was da gerade passiert istThat is to say, no matter how hard investigators try to adapt their analyses to the “foreign” ways of children, the model they build up will always be a model constructed out of concepts that are necessarily the investigators’. Because children’s ways of thinking are never directly accessible, the investigators’ model can never be compared to a child’s thought in order to determine whether there is or is not a perfect match. The most one can hope for is that the model fits whatever observations one has made and, more importantly, that it remains viable in the face of new observations.Source: Conceptual Models in Educational Research and Practice Models in Educational Research and Practice heißt Lehrende, aber auch Eltern, müssen versuchen zu verstehen, warum das Kind Fehler macht. Dann kann das Kind dabei unterstützt werden, sein Konzept anzupassen und eine Lösung für die Testfrage/das Problem zu finden, die viabel – also mit Konzept und Realität vereinbar - ist.
Kinder8normalDas erklärt, so Glasersfeld, warum Lehrer und Lehrerinnen mehr Aufmerksamkeit auf die Quellen der Fehler legen solltenThis, of course, is the reason why the best teachers have always paid more attention to the sources of mistakes than to the how of students’ correct answers.Source: Knowing without Metaphysics: Aspects of the Radical Constructivist Position without Metaphysics: Aspects of the Radical Constructivist Position 960 720.jpg
Kinder#ConclusionStation9conclusionHeader for the conclusionLernen bedeutet also Konzepte im Kopf an die Umwelt anzupassen. Und das tun bereits kleine Kinder. Lehrerinnen und Lehrer unterstützen uns dabei. Aber sie sind nicht alleine dafür verantwortlich. Lernen findet einerseits in Gruppen statt und andererseits muss der Lernende seine Konzepte aktiv selbst anpassen. 960 720.jpg