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A list of all pages that have property "AnnotationComment" with value "Knowledge, thus, is usually assumed to be knowledge of the environment.". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

Showing below up to 26 results starting with #1.

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  • Annotation:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior*/X8f74stx0o  + (Kommunikation ist als "instrumental", "zielorientiert" und damit "zielgerichtet" zu betrachten.)
  • Annotation:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior*/R0k8c782nv  + (Kommunikation ist ein Werkzeug)
  • Annotation:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior*/Qnx8s2knfn  + (Kommunikationsverhalten entwickelt sich in Situationen, in denen die Zusammenarbeit nicht nur die additive Aktivität mehrerer Personen erfordert, sondern auch eine Organisation im Sinne der Aufgabenteilung)
  • Annotation:Adaptation and Viability/Cdgz89aatp  + (Konklusion: Die Koordination in komplexen operativen Systemen kann nicht der natürlichen Selektion zugeschrieben werden, sondern ist Ergebnis des Lernens)
  • Annotation:Adaptation and Viability/Q11yok691f  + (Konklusion: Ein Organismus lernt, was zu zufriedenstellenden Ergebnissen führt)
  • Annotation:Adaptation and Viability/Pui85bouz3  + (Konklusion: In der Ontologie hat Selektion nicht Eliminierung zur Folge, sondern erfolglose Versuche)
  • Annotation:Adaptation and Viability/U74jy5vhph  + (Konklusion: Neue Verhaltensweisen entstehen, wie Mutationen, ohne biologischen Grund und werden von Generation zu Generation aufrecht erhalten, sofern sie die Lebensfähigkeit nicht beinträchtigen)
  • Annotation:Adaptation and Viability/Ykactjanqj  + (Konklusion: Um eine bestimmte Sittuation oder Veränderung der Unmwelt zu überleben, muss ein Organismus die erforderlichen Eigenschaften durch Mutation bereits vorher erworben haben.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Die Radikal-Konstruktivistische Wissenstheorie/Amy5j5prop  + (Kurz, alles, was überlebt. war schon im Vorhinein an die Bedingungen und Beschränkungen angepaßt, durch die die natürliche Auslese nun das Nichtangepaßte vernichtet.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Die Radikal-Konstruktivistische Wissenstheorie/Iv70iak5ec  + (Kurz, man kann die allgemeine Regel formulieren, daß Akkommodationen und somit Lernen dann zustande kommen, wenn ein gewohntes Schema ein unerwartetes Resultat hervorbringt.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Knowing without Metaphysics: Aspects of the Radical Constructivist Position/Ubaxm0s76d  + (Language does not transport pieces of one person’s reality into another’s – it merely prods and prompts the other to build up conceptual structures which, to this other, seem compatible with the words and actions the speaker or writer has used)
  • Annotation:Learning and Adaptation in the Theory of Constructivism/G2chvzdbr5  + (Lernen ist eine bewusssteoder unbewusst gesteuerte Aktivität wärhrend Anpassung in seiner grundlegenden Bedeutung keine Aktivität des Organismus ist.)
  • Annotation:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior*/L9ijfjpwid  + (Lernen, ob bewusst oder unbewusst, entspringt immer derselben Wurzel: einem mehr oder weniger regelmäßigen Wieederauftreten in vergangener Erfahrung.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Adaptation and Viability/Gu6abzpjqn  + (Let me cite one example that is particularLet me cite one example that is particularly well-documented and well-known: the Japanese macaque Imo on Koshima Islet that started washing her sweet potatoes (Kawai, 1965). Within 10 years the entire population, with the exception of a few old males who were too conservative, practiced potato washing. There was no time for a mutation or some other genetic accident to increase or decrease anyone’s viability. Nor, indeed, is there any evidence that potato washing has increased anyone’s genetic fitness. But as the new activity quickly created exceptional familiarity with water, it led to yet another novel behavior: swimming. Since all this has taken place in a country where earthquakes and tectonic disasters are not at all impossible, it might be tempting to conjecture that if Koshima Islet should one day sink into the sea, the swimming skill might yet become the crucial feature that allows these macaques to reach a safe shore while the macaques in other sinking regions perish. Subsequent generations of sociobiologists could then use the swimming macaques as a textbook example for “evolutionary explanation.” But such a scenario in which swimming might become an important asset toward the survival of macaques or macaque genes has not yet happened. Yet the washing of food and swimming have become part of the behavioral repertoire of a macaque population without the benefit of an evolutionary explanation.he benefit of an evolutionary explanation.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Homage to Jean Piaget (1896–1980)/N2w7shbk55  + (Let me give you a very simple example. It Let me give you a very simple example. It is a charming anecdote I read, but cannot remember where. A little girl is walking, and every now and then she pushes her ball to roll ahead. As the path begins to go up a hill, the ball, to her surprise, comes rolling back. And she asks: “How does the ball know where I am?.” The little girl’s question demonstrates that she is at least to some extent aware of her experience and can reflect upon it. Only a reflective mind, a mind that is looking for order in the baffling world of experience, could formulate such a question. It is the kind of question that, after innumerable further trials and untenable assumptions, would lead an imaginative thinker with the stamina of Galilei, to an explanatory principle such as ‘gravitation’.planatory principle such as ‘gravitation’.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:The Construction of Knowledge/S4pp73v9fl  + (Let us assume that I was here yesterday aLet us assume that I was here yesterday and, just as now, had a glass of water in front of me. I come in today and say: “Oh, this is the same glass, the identical glass that stood here yesterday.” If someone asked me, how I can tell that it is the identical glass, I should have to look for a particular that distinguishes this glass from all others. This may turn out to be impossible.thers. This may turn out to be impossible.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:The Constructivist View of Communication/Edohi93gyj  + (Let us assume that your attention is caughLet us assume that your attention is caught by the color red. As such the redness is not confined, has not yet a specific shape in your visual field, and is not a discrete thing. But as you focus on it, you are able to fit the color into the pattern you have learned to call “house”. If you were asked to describe what you see, you would most likely say: “there is a red house”. You choose the adjectival connection because the color and the thing were produced in a continuous application of attention. If, on the other hand, you recognize in your visual field a pattern that fits your concept of “house” and only then, scanning it more closely, you focus attention on its color, you would most likely say: “the house is red”. This syntactic structure clearly expresses that the concept of “house” was brought forth independently of the color that was subsequently attributed to it.or that was subsequently attributed to it.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Anticipation in the Constructivist Theory of Cognition/Omso6tefg9  + (Let us look at the example more closely. ILet us look at the example more closely. I am thirsty, and there is a glass of water in front of me on the table. From past experience I have learned (by induction and abstraction) that water is a means to quench my thirst. This is the ‘voluntary purpose’ I have chosen at the moment. In other words, I am anticipating that water will do again what it did in the past. But to achieve my purpose, I have to drink the water. There, again, I am relying on past experience, in the sense that I carry out the ‘specific movements’ which I expect (anticipate) to bring the glass to my lips. It is these movements that are controlled and guided by negative feedback. When I reflect upon this sequence of decisions and actions, it becomes clear that the notion of causality plays an important role in the event.lity plays an important role in the event.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Die Radikal-Konstruktivistische Wissenstheorie/Gn8rwmbam5  + (Man braucht mindestens zwei, zwischen deneMan braucht mindestens zwei, zwischen denen man einen Unterschied feststellt. Nehmen wir an, ich sehe, daß der Apfel, den meine Frau mir vor zwei Tagen auf den Schreibtisch gelegt hat, nun angefault ist. Das Diagramm dieser Änderung sieht so aus: ((53)) Um zu sagen, daß der Apfel „X“ sich verändert hat, muß ich annehmen, daß er in beiden Beobachtungen derselbe war; wäre er es nicht, so müßte ich ‘Austausch’ denken, nicht ‘Veränderung’. Ist der Apfel an eine andere Stelle des Schreibtischs gerollt, so setzte ich statt der Eigenschaften im Diagramm die zwei verschiedenen Ortsbestimmungen ein, und dann zeigt es die ‘Ortsveränderung’ an. ((54)) Wenn ein Objekt im Laufe mehrerer Erlebnisse in gewisser Hinsicht unverändert bleibt, so kann ich die Fortdauer seines Zustands durch zwei einander folgende, aber ansonsten gleiche Momentaufnahmen anzeigen und so den Begriff der Dauer nahelegen. Verbinde ich das Element der Fortdauer an einem Ort mit der Beobachtung des identischen Individuums an einem anderen, so erhalte ich den Begriff der räumlichen ‘Ausdehnung’. ((55)) Daß die in diesen Diagrammen angedeuteten mentalen Operationen zumeist nicht bewußt registriert werden, läßt sich mit Hilfe von zwei ganz banalen Aussagen zeigen. Einmal sage ich zu einem Besucher: „Der Zug geht direkt von hier nach Boston“, ein andermal,.Diese Straße geht nach Boston.“ Normalerweise wird weder mir noch ihm dabei bewußt, daß der Zug nur jeweils an einem Ort sein kann, während die Straße als an beiden Orten zugleich gedacht wird.als an beiden Orten zugleich gedacht wird.)
  • Annotation:Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician/Nzrw03dgo4  + (Metapher)
  • Annotation:Adaptation and Viability/Dz5gvl6lhi  + (Metapher)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Thoughts about Space, Time, and the Concept of Identity/Vc8cvn18ir  + (More often than not, this will do the trick, because the possession of specific memories is accepted as unquestionable proof of individual continuity.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Thoughts about Space, Time, and the Concept of Identity/Q32xrhbg0q  + (Mount Etna towers over Sicily regardless oMount Etna towers over Sicily regardless of any Sicilians, the Monalisa smiles whether the Louvre is open to the public or not, and the river Inn flows down the Engadin even when no one dangles a toe in its icy water. All that (and more) is what we hold to be reality. The mountain, the painted smile, and – in spite of what Heraclitus said – even the flowing river, are supposed to have their place and to remain what they are.e their place and to remain what they are.)
  • Annotation:Aspects of Constructivism/Byuqywxnma  + (Nach Piaget bedeutet Interaktion nicht, dass ein Organismus mit Objekten interagiert, wie sie „wirklich“ sind, sondern dass ein kognitives Subjekt sich mit zuvor konstruierten Wahrnehmungs- und Konzeptstrukturen auseinandersetzt.)
  • Annotation:Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician/P7qg84omqx  + (Neue Erkentnisse, die schockieren)