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A list of all pages that have property "AnnotationComment" with value "Gleichheit ist immer relativ". Since there have been only a few results, also nearby values are displayed.

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  • Annotation:An Introduction to Radical Constructivism/Pughfc3e56  + (Es gibt keinen Zusammenhang zwischen den "objektiven" Welt und der Überlebensfähigkeit biologischer Strukturen und Verhaltensweisen.)
  • Annotation:Aspects of Constructivism/Pwxs1yayw8  + (Es ist eine Sache zu behaupten, dass der eigenen Erfahrung nach die Bedeutung, die andere einem Wort zuschreiben, mit der eigenen kompatibel zu sein scheint, aber eine andere, anzunehmen, dass die Bedeutungen gleich sind.)
  • Annotation:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior*/Hhd7qwplez  + (Es kann keine Entwicklung der Sprache geben, wenn es keinen Ursprung gegeben hat. Keine Evolution ohne Ursprung)
  • Annotation:The Construction of Knowledge/M481z8uurk  + (Es muss einen Ort außerhalb des eigenen Erfahrungsbereichs geben, in dem Dinge sein können, wenn sie nicht erlebt werden.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Anticipation in the Constructivist Theory of Cognition/S6xchbgg1w  + (Even in Aristotle’s day, bright people hadEven in Aristotle’s day, bright people had noticed that those who regularly took some physical exercise such as walking, had a better chance of staying healthy. They had observed this often enough to consider it a reliable rule. Given that they had Olympic games and were interested in the performances of athletes, they probably also had some plausible theory of why exercise made one feel better. Consequently, they were confident in believing that going for walks was an efficient cause that had the effect of maintaining and even improving your health. People who felt that their physical fitness was deteriorating could, therefore, reasonably decide to use walking as a tool to bring about a beneficial change in their condition.ut a beneficial change in their condition.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Learning and Adaptation in the Theory of Constructivism/Hc3ugdvv23  + (Eventually this perspective led him to theEventually this perspective led him to the conclusion that the function of intelligence was not, as traditional epistemology held, to provide cognitive organisms with ‘true’ representations of an objective environment. Rather, he began to see cognition as generator of intelligent tools that enable organisms to construct a relative fit with the world as they experience it. fit with the world as they experience it.)
  • Annotation:The Concepts of Adaptation and Viability in a Radical Constructivist Theory of Knowledge/Fgoozdwske  + (Fehler aufzeigen)
  • Annotation:The Concepts of Adaptation and Viability in a Radical Constructivist Theory of Knowledge/Iyspt8m5tx  + (Fehler aufzeigen)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:The Reluctance to Change a Way of Thinking/Mkwgldjnzq  + (Finally, it must be made clear that, whileFinally, it must be made clear that, while biologists may tend to think of viability and adaptedness in terms of differential reproduction, in the cognitive domain the two terms refer to the achievement and maintenance of internal equilibrium. For the constructivist, therefore, Knowledge has the function of eliminating perturbations; and the higher we move in the hierarchy of conceptual abstractions, the more the perturbations tend to be conceptual rather than material. This, obviously, is one of the features that make the constructivist approach interesting for therapists.ivist approach interesting for therapists.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Knowledge as Environmental Fit/Z5oo5zzrj0  + (First of all, it is important to realize that there are several levels of reality that differ largely in the material that is used to construct the items that are then considered “real.”)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Knowledge as Environmental Fit/Eku7n1qmir  + (For constructivists, then, studying the geFor constructivists, then, studying the genesis of the concepts that allow us to organize our experience is not a sin but a necessity; and the way in which that genesis will be studied should undoubtedly be part of psychology, even if the psychological establishment, with the exception of Piaget and his Geneva School, has hitherto not done very much in that direction.erto not done very much in that direction.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Cybernetics, Experience, and the Concept of Self/Jfxfuijhx1  + (For example, the visual experience that weFor example, the visual experience that we consider an instance of a specific object is different every time. The object’s shape changes according to the angle, and its size according to the distance from which it is seen. Its color changes according to the illumination, and other parameters are no less variable according to changes in the context. What, then, constitutes the invariant object which the organism recognizes?iant object which the organism recognizes?)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior/Jnn3h8oxj3  + (For induction, whether it is conscious in the form of a conclusion we draw, or unconscious in the form of a behavior that becomes established because of its success, springs always from the same root: a more or less regular recurrence in past experience.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Cybernetics, Experience, and the Concept of Self/Gs82cvn8ty  + (For many five-year-olds, for instance, the sun today and the sun yesterday are not yet one and the same individual (Piaget, 1971, p. 87).)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:The Logic of Scientific Fallibility/R60qr14fqa  + (For many thousands of years the river NileFor many thousands of years the river Nile flooded the Egyptian lowlands near the Mediterranean coast at least once a year. Vast amounts of fresh water seeped into the soil, fertilized it, and created a natural pressure against the water of the sea. The floods were a nuisance and, quite apart from this, using the Nile’s water to irrigate parts of the desert up-stream seemed eminently desirable. So the Assuan Dam was built to solve these two problems. The Nile no longer got out of hand and new land up- stream could be irrigated and cultivated. For a little while the dam seemed a wonderful success of science and engineering. Then it became clear that the salt of the Mediterranean was slowly but steadily seeping into and devastating the lowlands along the coast which had fed Egypt for millennia.e coast which had fed Egypt for millennia.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Why I Consider Myself a Cybernetician/Bpv4m0w0ac  + (For me, therefore, the world in which we find ourselves living, is the world that we have been able to build and maintain within the constraints we have so far experienced. – What could be more cybernetic than this?)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Distinguishing the Observer: An Attempt at Interpreting Maturana/Kr99ppmmzt  + (For that reason, a meticulous investigation such as Maturana’s, can only show that, regardless of where we step into the circle, we can neither come to an end of the path, nor, if we retraced our steps, to a beginning.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Adaptation and Viability/Dkvqwd8cv5  + (From an evolutionary point of view, it wouFrom an evolutionary point of view, it would be far more consistent to say that, like mutations, novel behaviors may arise for no biological reason at all and may be perpetuated from generation to generation, provided they do not diminish the organisms’ biological viability below a critical point.ological viability below a critical point.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Distinguishing the Observer: An Attempt at Interpreting Maturana/E12cs7qh1d  + (From that angle, then, it becomes clear that, in the autopoietic organism also, “expectations” are nothing but re-presentations of experiences that are now projected into the direction of the not-yet-experienced.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:The Constructivist View of Communication/Z5i8w1rev8  + (From the constructivist point of view, it From the constructivist point of view, it is important to stress that it does not matter if the thing I perceive when I follow the direction in which the other is looking is not quite the same as the thing he or she perceives. What DOES matter, in order to link a word to a percept, is that, whenever he or she utters a specific word, I see something that I can consider the repetition of what I saw on similar previous occasions. The crucial feature is the coordination of attention. feature is the coordination of attention.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Knowledge as Environmental Fit/Ab8fb8wrqd  + (From the radical constructivist perspectivFrom the radical constructivist perspective, “knowledge” fits reality in much the same way that a key fits a lock that it is able to open. The fit describes a capacity of the key, not a property of the lock. When we face a novel problem, we are in much the same position as the burglar who wishes to enter a house. The “key” with which he successfully opens the door might be a paper clip, a bobby pin, a credit card, or a skillfully crafted skeleton key. All that matters is that it fits within the constraints of the particular lock and allows the burglar to get in.lar lock and allows the burglar to get in.)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Teleology and the Concepts of Causation/Xazuanz5mw  + (From this, one is led to conclude that the scientific search of efficient causes is fueled largely, if not entirely, by our intention to use them for the attainment of goals.)
  • Annotation:The Development of Language as Purposive Behavior*/Vt0uvofbdz  + (Für den Organismus kann es keine Sache wie die "Umwelt" geben)
  • Annotation:Thoughts about Space, Time, and the Concept of Identity/Aluavcyuj7  + (Für den Vergleich von Erfahrungen braucht es keine Gegenstände, die für sich exisiterien, sondern allein Erfahrung)
  • Annotation:Annotationen:Knowledge as Environmental Fit/J3jyk1t96t  + (Given this central notion of fit, the radical constructivist theory of knowledge is essentially a cybernetic theory in that it is based on the principle of adaptation to constraints rather than the principle of causation.)